Beginning in 1954, a handful of major cities, including Beijing and Shanghai, established clinics where people could receive legal advice, which is one of the first legal works in the PRC.16 The report on the establishment of the work of our country`s lawyers was a series of recommendations submitted by the Ministry of Justice in January 1956, calling for a legal system governed by national legislation. These recommendations led to provisional regulation for lawyers in 1957, and in June of the same year, 817 law firms were established throughout China, 17 and 19 bar associations responsible for 2,500 full-time lawyers and 300 extraordinary lawyers in 33 cities.18 Legal systems generally seek to improve legal compliance by using threats and sanctions aimed at: Preventing people from engaging in criminal behaviour (Nagin, 1998). In public and political discourse, answers to the question – why do people break the law? – generally revolve around the idea that crimes occur when the criminal justice system does not offer a sufficient likelihood of sanctions or when sufficiently severe penalties are not imposed. Social coercive control mechanisms and credible risks of sanctions hope to convince the potential perpetrator of a rational choice that – although otherwise desirable – a criminal act is not worth the risk. As a rule, there are few generalizations that can be made through different constitutions. First, constitutions seek to regulate the distribution of powers, functions and duties among the various agencies and government officials, and to define the relationship between them and the public. Second, no constitution, no matter how well designed, can protect a political system from effective usurpation. Third, those in power in many countries are more or less completely ignorant of the constitution. Fourth, even when constitutions work, none are complete: each works in a matrix of compromises, customs, or jurisprudence. Fifth, most begin by identifying (at least on paper) the constituent authority (such as “the people”) and often refer to the deity (i.e., Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Pakistan, Switzerland). Sixth, they generally separate the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the State.
Seventh, they usually contain or incorporate a bill of rights. Eighth, they often provide a method for repealing laws and other instruments that are unconstitutional, including the Bill of Rights. Ninth, they address the international scene only in general and, in practice, they confer extensive powers on the (federal) executive. Finally, they deal with the status of international law by giving or denying it direct internal effect. The faculty of positive law of legal thought would recognize the imperative of the legislator as legitimate; Questions about the morality or immorality of the law would not matter. On the other hand, the natural law school of legal thought would refuse to recognize the legitimacy of laws that do not conform to natural, universal or divine law. If a legislator were to make an order that violated natural law, a citizen would have a moral right to demonstrate civil disobedience. For example, when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white person, she believed she was refusing to obey an unjust law. Private law defines who is considered a person capable of entering into legal relationships and deals with his or her legal capacity (to protect the very young or the mentally ill).
These natural persons may create other “artificial” legal entities such as associations, foundations and companies. A pure common law system is created by the judiciary, since the law comes from the judiciary and not from the law. As a result, a common law system places a strong emphasis on judicial precedents. However, a purely civil system is governed by laws rather than jurisprudence. This is a case of our federal justice system that has a trial or hearing in a federal district court, an appeal to the Sixth District Court of Appeals, and a final appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. Teresa Harris, who lost in both the District Court and the Sixth District Court of Appeals, has here requested a writ of certiorari (in which she asks the court to make an order to take the case to the Supreme Court), a petition that is granted less than once in fifty. In other words, the Supreme Court carefully selects its cases. In this case, the court wanted to resolve a disagreement between the different courts of appeal as to whether a plaintiff could claim damages in a hostile work environment without proving “serious psychological harm.” The Faculty of Natural Law has a great influence on American legal thought. The idea that certain rights are, for example, “inalienable” (as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and in the writings of John Locke) is consistent with this legal view.
Individuals may have “God-given” or “natural” rights that the government cannot legitimately take away. Government only with the consent of the governed is the natural result of this view. The states of the nation also have constitutions. In addition to legislative, executive and judicial functions, state constitutions prescribe various rights of citizens. .